Taking Care of Health

health care – the services provided by a country or an organization that involve caring for people’s health and treating people who are ill:
She worked in health care for 15 years.

health care is the improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis and treatment

Let’s learn about illnesses and their symptoms, what we should do to feel better and keep fit.

Level A2

Vocabulary: Symptoms and Illnesses

What’s the matter? – Що трапилось?
What’s wrong? – Що не так?
How do you feel? – Not so good/ Not very well/ Terrible/Tired/Exhausted
feel sick/ill – погано почуватися, почувати себе хворим
feel dizzy – відчувати запаморочення
a cold – застуда
a fever – лихоманка
a sore throat – біль у горлі
a toothache – зубний біль
a headache – головний біль
a stomachache – біль у животі
look pale – виглядати блідим
catch (caught, caught) a cold – застудитися
pick up (illness) – підхопити (хворобу)
cough – кашель, кашляти
sneeze – чхати
stuffy nose – закладений ніс
runny nose – нежить
hay fever – алергія, викликана пилком або пилом
have got hay fever/the flu/a cold/a food allergy
have a rash – мати висип
have a bruise/a scratch – мати синяк/подряпину
have a scald – обпікати рідиною

The difference between illness and disease

When there is something wrong with your health you have an illness. Your illness can last for a short time or a long time. The effects of your illness can be serious or not serious.

You can use the adjectives long and short in front of illness, but not in front of disease.

  • His illness resulted from overwork.
  • She is still weak after her illness.
  • He died last month after a long illness.
  • She is cheerful in spite of her illness.

A disease is a particular kind of illness, often caused by bacteria or an infection. Diseases can often be passed from one person to another. Animals and plants can also have diseases, but not illnesses.

  • A healthy diet creates a body resistant to disease.
  • Giving up smoking reduces the risk of heart disease.
  • Children should be immunised against dangerous diseases.
  • Some plants are very prone to disease.

Vocabulary: What you do when you are ill

take the temperature – виміряти температуру
take some medicine/a tablet/a pill – прийняти ліки/таблетку/пігулку
medical care – медична допомога
make an appointment with the doctor – записатися на прийом до лікаря
examine a patient – оглянути пацієнта
listen to one’s heart and lungs – слухати серце і легені
diagnose with – діагностувати
gargle one’s throat – полоскати горло
prescription – рецепт
prescribe – прописувати
recover in a week – одужати за тиждень
follow the doctor’s advice – дотримуватися порад лікаря
avoid serious complications – уникнути серйозних ускладнень
under a doctor’s care (=being treated by a doctor) – під наглядом лікаря
treat – лікувати
treatment – лікування
epidemic of flu – епідемія грипу

Task 1. Match the parts to make word combinations. Write what you do when you are ill using these phrases.

  1. to be absent
  2. to stay
  3. to have
  4. to call
  5. to consult
  6. to take
  7. to give
  8. to examine
  9. to listen to
  10. to diagnose somebody with
  11. to gargle
  12. to drink
  13. to follow
  14. to avoid

a. serious complications
b. at school
c. one’s advice
d. in bed
e. hot milk
f. a cold
g. one’s throat
h. a doctor
i. a bad cold
j. the dentist
k. the recommendations
l. one’s heart and lungs
m. the temperature
n. the patient

Task 2. Write sentences about your visit to the dentist. Use the phrases and the time expressions given below.

  1. to have a toothache / yesterday
  2. to visit a dentist / at the moment
  3. to examine smb’s teeth / already
  4. to write a prescription / not yet
  5. to ask the nurse to bring a prescription / now
  6. to visit a dentist / in two days

Task 3. Speak about your visit to the doctor. Here is a sample.

I was ill two weeks ago and I had to visit the doctor. I had a headache and a sore throat. My temperature was high – 38 degrees Celsius. I was sneezing and coughing badly. I made an appointment with the doctor. The doctor examined me. She listened to my heart and lungs, looked at my throat. I was diagnosed with a bad cold. I was prescribed some medicine. I was given recommendations to take medicines three times a day, gargle my throat and stay in bed for some days. I felt much better in a week under the doctor’s treatment. I followed the doctor’s advice and avoided serious complications.

Task 4. Circle the correct item and speak about traditional medicine.

  1.  Traditional folk medicine is _________ popular nowadays.
    a) yet   b) already   c) still
  2. Our grandmothers _________ secrets of being healthy and beautiful.
    a) hold   b) keep   c) carry
  3. The most important ______ is to use herbs in the treatment of illnesses.
    a) thing   b) think   c) thin
  4.  Different combinations of herbs ______ different illnesses.
    a) treat   b) treats   c) treating
  5. Herbs are _________ at a special time when they are the most powerful.
    a) gather   b) gathered   c) gathering
  6. A lot of ideas of the herb treatment are used in _________ medicine.
    a) nowadays   b) today   c) modern

Task 5. Match the words to make word combinations and make up sentences with them.

  1. to call
  2. a broken
  3. a small
  4. to tie
  5. to hit

a. bandage
b. on the back
c. an ambulance
d. scald
e. bone

Task 6. Read the definitions, unscramble and write the words.

  1. You have it when you cut yourself. ________________ ebdigenl
  2. You call it when somebody feels very bad. __________________ cablmenua
  3. It is on the skin and it is caused by hot liquid. _______________ lacds
  4. The doctor ties it onto the broken arm or leg. _______________ ganbaed
  5. People have it after the accident. _______________ khosc

Task 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Past Simle Passive.

  1. The last accident _______________(to cause) by a cyclist.
  2. The first aid _____________________(always to give) very quickly.
  3. Tim ________________ (to give) new roller skates on his birthday.
  4. Injured people _________________________ (usually to take) to hospital.
  5. The ambulance _________________ (to call) five minutes ago.
  6. The witness of the accident ____________________ (to question) yesterday.

Task 8. Complete the dialogue.

Doctor: What has happened?
Boy: The car has hit the girl.
D: __________________________________________________________________________________________
B: It happened half an hour ago.
D: __________________________________________________________________________________________
B: Yes, she was breathing, but she was unconscious.
D: __________________________________________________________________________________________

B: No, there wasn’t any bleeding.
D:___________________________________________________________________________________________
B: No, I didn’t move the girl. I just called the ambulance.
D: Thank you for your help, young gentleman. Good luck to you.

Task 9. Complete the questions with the correct question tags.

  1. We have never been to hospital before, _______________________?
  2. Tom hasn’t got any aspirin, _______________________?
  3. It’s the operating theatre, _______________________?
  4. You couldn’t help me yesterday, _______________________?
  5. He will be operated on next week, _______________________?
  6. The doctors look at the patients’ charts before the examination, _______________________?
  7. Jane doesn’t like to go to the policlinics, _______________________?
  8. They took the patient to the recovery room yesterday, _______________________?
  9. She is putting on the sterile rubber gloves now, _______________________?
  10. They didn’t meet the resident doctor last week, _______________________?
  11. An anesthetist had given anesthetics to my granny before the operation started, _______________________?
  12.  You don’t have to do it, _______________________?
  13. Germs were discovered in the nineteenth century, _______________________?
  14. You go to the dentist to have your tooth pulled out, ______________________?
  15. A lot of people suffer from allergy, _______________________?
  16. You felt really dizzy yesterday, _______________________?
  17. There are no nurses on the ground floor, ___________________?
  18. The operating theatre was ready for the operation, ___________________?
  19. After the operation the patient was taken to the recovery room, ___________________?
  20. She will introduce the doctor to you, ___________________?
  21. The patients aren’t examined by nurses, ___________________?
  22. She has already taken the pill, ________________________?

Task 10. Write questions to the sentences below. Define what type of question each of them is.

  1. They have bought a nasal spray this week. (What?)
  2. He is ill after walking under the rain. (… or …?)
  3. The doctor consulted me yesterday. (Who?)
  4. Steve is going to take a teaspoon of medicine. (…?)
  5. Mr. Parker went to hospital to X-ray his left arm. (Where?)
  6. An X-ray technician works on X-ray machines. (…, …?)

Task 11. Complete the sentences with the following verbs in the correct tense form:

to suffer from, to avoid, to take (x2), to stay, to recover, to consult, to examine, to listen to, to feel, to measure, to give, to prescribe

  1.  If your health is not good, you are not in a good mood and should _____________ a doctor.
  2. If you want _____________ serious complications, you should _____________ this medicine and _____________ in bed for a week.
  3. The doctor _____________ me carefully: he _____________ to my heart and lungs, _____________ the pulse, _____________ the temperature and _____________ my blood pressure.
  4. The doctor _____________ me some practical advice.
  5. As my friend has caught a cold, the doctor _____________ him to gargle his throat three times a day, drink hot milk with butter and honey.
  6. A cough syrup, a nasal spray, an aspirin and vitamins helped the patient _____________.
  7. If you _____________ a bad toothache, you should go to the dentist.

Task 12. Put the phrases in the correct order to make up a dialogue.

__1__ – Why were you absent yesterday, Frank?
_____ – I am well, thank you, Mrs. Blake. Here is a note from my mum.
_____ – I had a terrible stomachache.
_____ – Did you consult a doctor, Frank?
_____ – What was wrong with you?
_____ – Yes, I did.
_____ – I wasn’t very well, Mrs. Blake.
_____ – Oh, dear! How are you now?

Task 13. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple Passive.

  1. She _____________(to advise) to gargle her throat three times a day.
  2. The pupils _________________(to recommend) to do some vaccination.
  3. This illness _________________(to describe) in some medical journals.
  4. All the necessary treatment _______________(to give) to the patient.
  5. His heart and lungs _______________(to listen) to by the doctor.
  6. This medicine ___________________(to improve) by our scientists last year.

Task 14. Circle the correct item.

  1. This medicine gave/was given to him two hours ago.
  2. The doctor advised/ was advised him to stay in bed for three days.
  3. The patient examined/ was examined carefully.
  4. Henry told/ was told to consult a resident doctor.
  5. The doctor prescribed/ was prescribed some medicines to the patient.

Task 15. Complete the sentences with the words: medical, gargle, treatment, patient, complications, avoid, diagnosed

  1. The doctor examined the __________________an hour ago.
  2. Laura is _____________ with the flu.
  3. The doctor told Peter to _______________ his throat three times a day.
  4. This illness is dangerous because of some serious ________________ it may cause.
  5. If you are under a doctor’s __________________, you should follow his advice.
  6. All the patients of this hospital are given a good _________________ care.
  7. The doctor told me to take this medicine regularly to ____________ serious complications.

Task 16. Rewrite the sentences using the Present Simple Passive or the Past Simple Passive.

  1. We listened to the news in the morning.
  2. He didn’t make any plans yesterday.
  3. They took care of the patient.
  4. She didn’t add cucumbers into this salad.
  5. We washed the fruit for lunch five minutes ago.
  6. The doctor gave the patient some practical advice.
  7. She always gives medical help to her patients.
  8. They opened a new hospital in this town last month.
  9. Many people know this doctor.
  10. They give children all the necessary medicines.

Vocabulary: Health Care

disease – захворювання
illness – захворювання, хвороба
germs – мікроби
eyesight / good eyesight / poor eyesight – зір / добрий зір / поганий зір
damage eyesight – псувати зір
medical checkup – медичний огляд
measure blood pressure – вимірювати артеріальний тиск
check / feel / take the pulse – перевірити пульс
hurt (hurt, hurt) – боліти; пошкодити
chemist’s/drugstore/pharmacy – аптека
suffer from – страждати від

Medicine

aspirin – аспірин
cough syrup – сироп від кашлю
cough mixture – мікстура від кашлю
cough drops – льодяники від кашлю
nasal spray – назальний спрей
eye drops – краплі для очей
ointment – мазь
painkiller – знеболювальне
herbal medicine – лікування травами
heating pad – грілка
ice pack – пакет з льодом
thermometer – термометр
do / give an injection / a shot – зробити ін’єкцію / укол

Accidents

accident – нещасний випадок, аварія
emergency department – відділення невідкладної допомоги
in case of emergency – в екстреному випадку
call an ambulance – викликати швидку допомогу
first aid – перша допомога
first aid kit – аптечка
injure – поранити
injury – травма
swell (swelled, swollen) – опухати
sprain – розтягнення зв’язок
bandage – бинт; перев’язувати
pain – біль
painful – болючий
bleed (bled, bled) – bleed
bleeding – кровотеча
blood – кров
infected wound/cut – інфікована рана/поріз
anesthetic – анестезуючий засіб
pain shock – больовий шок
burn – опік
choke – напад задухи
hit somebody on the back – ударити когось по спині
broken bone – зламана кістка
X-ray – рентген; робити рентгенівський знімок
breathe – дихати
unconscious – непритомний

At the Hospital

disinfectant – дезінфікуючий засіб
a ward – палата
pediatrician – педіатр
family physician – сімейний лікар
general practitioner – лікар загальної практики
allergist – алерголог
surgeon – хірург
ophthalmologist – офтальмолог/окуліст
X-ray technician – рентгенлаборант
anesthetist – анестезіолог
psychiatrist – психіатр
a nurse’s station – пост медсестри
a patient chart – карта пациента

Task 1. Match the words and word combinations with their definitions.

  1. eye drops
  2. a lotion
  3. a cough syrup
  4. an ice pack
  5. a vitamin
  6. an ointment
  7. aspirin

a. a thick, usually sweet, liquid containing medicine that helps you to stop coughing
b. a liquid mixture that you put on your skin or hair to clean or protect it
c. a bag containing ice that is put on injured or painful parts of your body to keep them cold
d. a soft cream that you rub into your skin especially as a medical treatment
e. a medicine that reduces the pain or fever
f. a chemical substance in food that is necessary for good health
g. a special liquid that you put into your eyes as a medical treatment

Task 2. Match the beginning and ending of the sentences. Speak about medicine and health care in the past.

1. Visiting the doctor in the past was…
2. For many illnesses …
3. The doctors used …
4. Leeches are …
5. Germs were discovered …
6. Doctors used to give many …
7. Before the discovery of penicillin…
8. During operations many people died…
9. When people had a toothache they went to …
10. Glasses were first invented …

a. herbal medicines.
b. by Arab and Persian doctors.
c. from the pain shock.
d. in the 19th century.
e. a very painful experience.
f. a barber to have their tooth pulled out.
g. doctors used to “bleed” their patients.
h. leeches.
i. you could die if even the smallest cut became infected.
j. small animals which bite the skin and suck the blood.

Task 3. Speak “Health Care. At the Hospital”

  1. People come to the hospital for many reasons:
    – if they are very sick
    – if they need special treatment
    – if they need special tests to find out what’s going on
    – if they need an operation
    – in case of emergency.
  2. All the doctors and nurses wear white coats.
  3. Hospital floors are washed with disinfectant several times a day to kill germs.
  4. Hospitals have to be very clean all the time.
  5. Children stay in their own section of the hospital called the pediatric ward.
  6. Every floor has a nurse’s station.
  7. All the patients’ charts are kept there.
  8. The chart has all sorts of information about the patient’s medical history and daily notes made by the doctors and nurses.
  9. Different specialists work at the hospital: pediatricians, general practitioners, anesthetists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, psychiatrists, X-ray technicians, etc.
  10. The work of doctors and nurses is very important because they help sick people and they can’t make mistakes.
  11. Doctors and nurses have to know a lot.

 

Task 4. Write the questions to the answers.

  1. When _____________________________________________________________________?
    His friend consulted the doctor last month.
  2. Why ______________________________________________________________________?
    He went to the policlinics because he needed to have a bad tooth extracted.
  3. What _____________________________________________________________________?
    I take vitamins to stay healthy and active.
  4. Where_____________________________________________________________________?
    The patient was taken to hospital for an X-ray.
  5. How long __________________________________________________________________?
    Her mother has worked in the hospital for twenty years.

Task 5. Make up the questions and answer them.

  1. chart/ does/ the/ contain/ What/ patient’s?
  2. do/ machines/ What/ X-ray/ do/ the?
  3. get/ does/ for/ surgeon/ the/ ready/ How/ operation/ the?
  4. the/ after/ is/ operation/ taken/ the/ Where/ patient?

Task 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

  1. My friend _______________(just to recover) from a very serious illness.
  2. Helen’s mother ____________(to take) her to the ophthalmologist yesterday and he __________________ (to prescribe) Helen eye drops.
  3. The family physician ________________(to tell) the nurse about the patient’s state tomorrow morning.
  4. The doctor always _________________(to read) the patient’s chart before he ______________ (to examine) him.
  5. Where ____________(to be) the surgeon? – He ________________(to operate) on the patient in the operating theatre.
  6. Ron ____________________(still to stay) in the hospital.

Task 7. Write the phrases in the correct order to make up the phone conversation.

____ – I have broken my leg.
____ – The doctor says I will return home in a week.
____ – Thank you for you call, Sally. Good bye.
____ – Hello, Sally. I’m so glad to hear you. Unfortunately I’m not very well.
____ – It happened when I was skating last Saturday. I was careless and fell down. The result is the broken leg.
____ – Oh, dear! How did it happen?
____ – How long will you stay at the hospital?
_1__ – Hi, Kate! It’s me, Sally. How are you?
____ – Don’t be upset. Follow the doctor’s advice and you’ll recover soon.
____ – What’s wrong with you?
____ – Good bye, Kate.