Grammar Time: Gerund Forms
The gerund is an -ing form. It can be simple or perfect, active or passive. These are gerund forms:
|Simple gerund||writing||being written|
|Perfect gerund||having written||having been written|
Exam in Mind Level B1 / B2
Gerund Forms: Perfect Gerund
The perfect gerund refers to a time before that of the verb in the main clause. However, it is only used if the time of the action expressed by the gerund is not obvious from the context
There is usually no difference between using the simple gerund or the perfect gerund because the context usually makes it clear when the action happened.
- He denied stealing the money. (It is clear that the money was stolen before denying it.)
- He denied having stolen the money.
- She regretted marrying too early. (It’s clear she married before regretting it.)
- She regretted having married too early.
- The thief admitted having stolen the money.(The first action: He stole the money. The second action: He admitted it.)
But sometimes there is a difference in meaning between using the simple gerund or the perfect gerund.
- He denied being married. (He denied that he was married ‘now’, at the time of the denial.)
- He denied having been married. (He denied that he had been married before, in the past.)
Gerund Forms: Passive Gerunds
Passive forms are also possible. A passive gerund is nothing but a verb with -ing ending in the passive voice. It may appear in one of two forms: present (e.g. being shown) and past (e.g. having been shown).
- I hate being lied to. (passive simple gerund: I hate it when people lie to me.)
- He complained of having been unjustly accused. (passive perfect gerund: He complained that they had unjustly accused him.)
- I remember being taken to the hospital.
- I hate being spoken to as if I’m a child.
- He showed no signs of having been warned.
- The notice, having been written in small letters, was not clearly visible.
Have practice using gerund forms.
Task 1. Use the verbs in brackets in the form of perfect gerund (having V3).
- Tom hated _______________ (climb) the mountain because there was nothing to see there.
- I remember _______________ (watch) that movie before.
- The murderer admitted _______________ (kill) the old lady.
- Sally regretted _______________ (forget) their wedding anniversary.
- One of the security guards was accused of _______________ (help) the robbers during the robbery.
- Why don’t you aplogize to me for _______________ (read) my diary?
- My son recalled _______________ (hide) his toy under his bed.
- He didn’t mention _______________ (change) the meeting dates to the manager.
- I couldn’t bear _______________ (hear) the terrible noise coming upstairs.
- This job necessitates _______________ (graduate) from ELT Department.
- She regrets _______________ (marry) too early.
- He is accused of _______________ (offer) a bribe for his fault in the accident.
- Gina remembers _______________ (travel) to Disneyland when she was 7.
- He enjoyed _______________ (eat) the chocolate cake.
- He denied _______________ (steal) the car.
Task 2. Choose the most appropriate gerund forms.
Task 4. Fill in the gaps with the perfect gerund of the verb in bold.
Example: He smashed her window. – He feels bad about having smashed her window.
- Sally won first prize. – Sally is very happy about ______________________________.
- Sally’s mother is proud that she won first prize. – Sally’s mother is proud of her daughter _____________________________.
- The company has employed another 30 people. – The company is happy at ______________________________.
- She lost her cell phone. – She is worried about ______________________________.
- He took the money. – He doesn’t deny ______________________________.
- She lived next door but never said anything to me. – She regrets ______________________________.
- They ate all the food. – They were charged for ______________________________.
- I parked in front of the emergency exit. – I apologise for ______________________________.
- He spoke to them before he left. – He recalls ______________________________.
- We waited for so long before they spoke to us. – We are not happy about ______________________________.
- She got the job. – She is excited about ______________________________.
- He said he was not there. – He denies ______________________________.
Task 5. Fill in the gaps using passive gerunds or infinitives.
- Nobody likes _______________ (laugh at).
- Katya remembers _______________ (tell about) the project.
- His greatest ambition is _______________ (choose) for the position of a team lead.
- _______________ (accept) to that company changed his life.
- We are looking forward _______________ (film) for this TV programme.
- I hate _______________ (ask) the same questions.
- Anton was very angry for _______________ (keep) waiting.
- Sveta doesn’t want _______________ (tell) what to do every time.
- I don’t mind _______________ (explain) how to do this task.
Task 6. Combine each pair of sentences into one sentence using gerund.
- Alice made a mistake in her homework. She remembered it. – Alice remembered ____________________.
- Tom asked me to remind him to buy a new shirt. I forgot it. – I forgot ____________________.
- Mr Pike taught John several years ago. He doesn’t remember it. – Mr Pike doesn’t remember ___________________.
- This work must be done before we go home. We mustn’t forget. – We mustn’t forget ___________________.
- Peter lived in this city when he was a boy. He doesn’t remember it. – Peter doesn’t remember ____________________.