Do English Olympiad Year 11 Reading Test 2 to improve your reading skills and prepare for English Olympiad and an exam.
Reading Comprehension Test for 11th Form Students
by Thomas Armstrong
Howard Gardner distinguishes between seven human intelligences. These are:
Linguistic intelligence: the ability to use words effectively, whether orally or in writing.
Logical-mathematical intelligence: the ability to use numbers effectively and to reason well.
Spatial intelligence: the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations upon those perceptions. This intelligence includes the sensitivity to color, line, shape, form, space and the relation that exists between these elements.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: skill in using one’s whole body to express ideas and feeling and ability to use one’s hands to produce or transform things.
Musical intelligence: the ability to perceive and express musical forms.
Interpersonal intelligence: sensitivity to the moods, intentions, motivations and feelings of other people. This can include sensitivity to facial expressions, voice and gestures; the ability to discriminate among many different kinds of interpersonal cues, and the ability to respond effectively to those cues.
Intrapersonal intelligence: self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge. This intelligence includes having an accurate picture of oneself; awareness of inner moods, intentions, motivations, temperaments, and desires; and the capacity of self-discipline, self-understanding, and self-esteem.
Many people look at the above categories – particularly musical, spatial, and bodily-kinesthetic – and wonder why Howard Gardner insists on calling them intelligences, not talents or aptitudes. Gardner realized that many people are used to hearing expressions like “He is not very intelligent, but he has a wonderful aptitude for music”; thus he was quite conscious of his use of the word intelligence to describe each category. He said in an interview that he wanted to make people think and talk about the idea of intelligences. If he had said that there are seven kinds of competences, people would have yawned and said, “Yeah”. But by calling them ‘intelligences’ he was saying that we have tended to put on a pedestal one variety called intelligence, and there are actually several of them, and some are things we have never thought of as ‘intelligence’ at all.
Gardner set up certain basic ‘tests’ that each intelligence had to meet to be considered a full-fledged intelligence and not simply a talent, skill, or aptitude. The first test is related to work he did in hospitals. At the Boston Veteran Administration he worked with individuals who had suffered accidents or illnesses that affected only specific areas of the brain. For example, a person with a wound or a cut in the left frontal lobe might have a substantial portion of his linguistic intelligence damaged, and thus experience great difficulty speaking, reading and writing. Yet, he might still be able to sing, do math, dance, reflect on feelings, and relate to others. In these cases, brain lesions seemed to have selectively affected one intelligence and not others.
True or False?
- Giving students opportunity to write is the only way to develop their linguistic intelligence.
- To have musical intelligence, a person has to be able to play an instrument.
- It is implied that a person with good interpersonal intelligence makes a good team member.
- People with strong intrapersonal intelligence know themselves but cannot change.
- Studying what people can and can’t do after they suffer a head injury is one test Gardner used to show that there are separate intelligences.
- Gardner found that when a part of the brain is damaged, certain intelligences are affected but not others.