Welcome to Geography
Read about the Geographical Position of Great Britain
The United Kingdom is very small comparing with the biggest countries of the world such as Russia, Canada, China or the USA. Its total area is about 244,000 square kilometers. There are more than 67 million people in the UK now, and London is one of the world’s biggest cities. Britain is relatively densely populated country. England has the highest population density and Scotland the lowest.
The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The capital of England is London. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. The capital of Wales is Cardiff. The capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast. The capital of the United Kingdom is London.
The UK is situated on the British Isles. This group of islands lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and consists of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and 550 smaller islands around them. It is separated from the continent of Europe by the English Channel, the narrowest part of which is called the Straight of Dover or Pas de Calais. In the west the UK is separated from Ireland by the Irish Sea and the North Channel. The seas around Britain are often rough and difficult to navigate during storms but they are full of fish and are extremely important for trade. Britain’s main ports are London, Hull, Liverpool, Glasgow and some others.
You will not find high mountains or large plains in Britain. Everything occupies very little place. The highest mountain, Ben Nevis, is in Scotland. In the centre of England is a range of hills called the Pennine Chain which is also known as the “backbone of England”. The Cambrian Mountains in Wales and the Cumbrian Mountains in the Lake District in the north of England are not high but amazingly beautiful. The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary between England and Scotland. Scotland is divided into three regions: the Highlands, the Central Lowlands and the Southern Uplands.
There are very many rivers in Great Britain but they are not very long. The main rivers are the Thames, the Severn, the Clyde, the Mersey and the Trent. The longest river is the Severn in England, but the most famous is the Thames because it gave rise to the capital of the country – London.
There are many lakes in Great Britain. In Scotland they are called lochs. The most famous lake is Loch Ness in Scotland which is said to have a water monster. The Lake District is one of the most popular holiday places in Great Britain. Many people say that Great Britain is like a large well-kept park. There are beautiful gardens, fields, meadows, lakes and woods there. The best-known is Sherwood Forest where Robin Hood once lived, the legendary outlaw who robbed the rich and gave their money to the poor.
Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources though there is oil in the North Sea, coal in Wales and in the north of England, tin and other non-ferrous metals in the south.
Decide whether the following statements are true or false.
- The UK takes the tenth place in world population.
- “British” and “English” are not synonyms.
- Scotland has the smallest population of the four countries of the UK.
- Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the North Sea and the North Channel.
- The waters around Great Britain are dangerous in bad weather.
- There are not only lakes but also mountains in the Lake District.
- The Highlands separate Scotland from England.
- The Thames is the longest and the deepest river in the UK.
- The most famous wood in Scotland is Sherwood Forest where Robin Hood once lived.
- There are coal deposits in the south of England.