Let’s learn how to use definite and indefinite articles.
В англійській мові є два артиклі: неозначений a/an й означений the.
Артикль a/an вживається:
- Перед злічуваними іменниками в однині, які ми згадуємо вперше. This is a copybook. This is an apple.
- Після дієслів to be, to have. His father is a doctor. I am a schoolboy. They have got a big dog.
- У словосполученнях “прикметник + іменник”, якщо іменник вживається в однині. This is a comfortable room. She has a small mouth.
- З назвою професії, маючи на увазі будь-якого її представника. A postman brings letters and newspapers. (Which postman? A postman in general)
- З іменниками, що мають узагальнююче значення. A plane is faster than a car. (Planes in general, cars in general.)
Артикль the вживається:
- Із злічуваними іменниками в однині та множині, які згадуються не вперше. This is a vase. The vase is on the table. These are pencils. The pencils are in the box.
- З незлічуваними іменниками. Do you like cheese? The cheese is in the fridge. The icecream on the plate is very tasty.
- Перед порядковими числівниками. I didn’t like the first story, I liked the second one. Today is the second of September.
- З найвищим ступенем порівняння прикметників. The red car is the fastest. This street is the most beautiful in our town. He is the cleverest boy in our class.
- З назвами музичних інструментів: My mother plays the piano.
- Перед історичними подіями або епохами: the Middle Ages, the Civil War
Task 1. Complete the sentences with the articles a / the.
- This is __ picture. __ picture is on the wall.
- This boy is __ oldest in our class.
- __ elephant is bigger than __ tiger.
- I would like to have some salad. __ salad is tasty.
- Her sister is __ student.
- My friend lives in __ third house.
- We have got __ nice garden.
- Her picture is __ best.
- Where are __ books? __ books are on __ bookshelf.
- __ baker bakes bread and buns.
- My brother wants __ orange which is on the shelf.
- I have got __ dog. __ dog is two years old.
- He has learned __ longest poem from this book.
- __ first month of this winter was very cold.
- __ photographer makes photos.
- __ coffee in the cup is cold.
- Ben’s mother is __ cook, and his father is __ doctor.
- His uncle is __ driver and his aunt is __ cook.
- This is __ living-room. It is __ most beautiful room in our flat.
- His sister is __ shop assistant. She works in __ big supermarket. __ supermarket is not far from our house. This is __ biggest supermarket in our town. We always buy food in __ supermarket.
- They have got __ new house. __ house is not big , but very nice. There is __ garden around __ house. We like to play in __ garden in summer.
Артиклі не вживаються:
- Якщо перед іменником стоїть присвійний займенник (my, your, his, her, its, our, their) або вказівний займенник (this, that, these, those). I like my new computer. That cake looks delicious.
- Якщо перед іменником стоїть кількісний числівник (one, two, three, four, five, etc.). Two puppies were very funny.
- Якщо перед іменником стоїть іменник у присвійному відмінку (mother’s, sister’s) або слово no. Don’t take mother’s bag. They have no relatives in this town. There are no books on the table.
- Якщо ми кажемо про людей або речі взагалі. He likes sport but he doesn’t like poetry. Chocolate is sweet. Children are funny.
Task 2. Complete the sentences with the articles a / the where necessary.
- I met __ two friends yesterday. __ first friend was very happy to see me. __ second friend was upset, because __ his dog was ill.
- Mary likes __ music very much. __ music she is listening to now is very beautiful.
- My mother doesn’t like __ bananas.
- Take __ banana from the shelf.
- I have __ two sisters, but I have no __ brothers.
- Frank doesn’t like __ cats.
- I like __ beautiful flowers.
- Thank you for __ flowers. They are lovely!
- My brother’s __ wife is __ nurse.
- I have no __ money.
- My friend has __ very big collection of __ stamps.
- This house has got __ two floors. There are __ three rooms on __ first floor. __ kitchen is on __ ground floor.
- How many kittens are there? – There are __ two cute kittens in the box.
- I have __ little brother. He is very funny. He has got __ big blue eyes and __ small nose. He has got __ short dark hair. My __ little brother likes his __ toys. His favourite toy is __ big red car. __ car is always near __ his bed. My __ brother also likes __ apples. Our __ mother often gives us __ apples. Look! My __ brother is eating __ big apple now.
Articles with Proper Names
Артикль the вживається:
- Коли йдеться про щось єдине у своєму роді: the Sun, the Moon, the Sphinx
- З назвами країн у множині або з тими до складу яких входять слова Republic, Kingdom: the Netherlands, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, the Irish Republic
- З назвами морів, річок, океанів, каналів, груп островів, гірських масивів, пустель: the Black Sea, the Thames, the Atlantic Ocean, the Alps, the English Channel, the Sahara Desert
- З назвами кінотеатрів, театрів, музеїв, готелів, газет, пароплавів: the Odeon, the Royal Theatre, the British Museum, the Hilton, the Times, the Titanic
- Перед прізвищем у множині, коли мова йде про всіх членів родини: the Smiths, the Petrenkos
- Для позначення нації в цілому: the British, the Ukrainians
- З назвами титулів, якщо при цьому не називається ім’я: the Queen, the President
Артикль the не вживається:
- З іменами та прізвищами людей, кличками тварин: Kate works in the hospital. Mr. Smith isn’t at the office at the moment. His dog’s name is Rex.
- З назвами населених пунктів, країн, вулиць, парків: Kyiv, Lviv, Paris, Lipliavo, France, Germany, Shevchenko Street, Green Park, Hyde Park
- З назвами гірських вершин, одиничних островів, озер, континентів: Hoverla, Everest, Madagascar, Lake Geneva, Europe, Asia
- З назвами титулів, якщо вони називаються з іменами та прізвищами людей: Queen Elizabeth, President Washington
- З назвами мов, видів спорту, місяців, днів: He speaks German and French. His favourite game is football. Let’s meet on Monday. His birthday is in January.
Have practice using the articles
Do not use the before the names of:
- continents (North America, Asia, Africa)
- mountains (Mount Rushmore, Mount Everest)
- islands (Saint Lucia, Antigua, Grenada)
- streets (Broad Street, Wilson Avenue)
- cities and towns (Birmingham, Seattle, Las Vegas)
- states (Alabama, Washington, Nevada)
- lakes (Lake Erie, Lake Kissimmee, Lake Rabun)
Do use the before the names of:
- points on the globe (the Equator, the North Pole, the south)
- mountain ranges (the Smoky Mountains, the Andes)
- island chains (the Florida Keys, the Pacific Islands)
- geographical areas (the East, the Midwest)
- rivers, seas, and oceans (the Mississippi River, the Atlantic Ocean, the Nile River)
- deserts and peninsulas (the Mojave Desert, the Balkan Peninsula
- groups of lakes (the Great Lakes)
Task 3. Complete the sentences with the where necessary.
- Where is your friend from? – He is from __ Odessa. He lives in __ Deribassovskaya Street.
- Is __ Pacific Ocean bigger than __ Indian Ocean?
- When Alex was in __ London he saw __ Queen.
- __ Clarkes prefer to spend their winter holidays in __ Himalayas.
- Is __ Gobi Desert in __ Africa?
- __ president of our country visited __ Sicily and met __ president of __ Italy there.
- __ Roman-Cosh is the highest peak of __ Crimean Mountains.
- __ Lake Victoria is one of the most beautiful lakes on __ Earth.
- My friend lives in a small town near __ Mediterranian Sea.
- __ Kilimajaro is the highest mountain in __ Africa.
- The group of journalists had a meeting with __ President of __ Ukraine.
- A new film is on at __ Kinopalats today. Let’s go and watch it!
- Is __ Mississippi River longer than __ Nile River?
- __ Great Victoria Desert is in __ Australia.
Task 4. Complete the dialogue with the where necessary.
- Haven’t seen you for ages, __ Mark! Where have you been?
- Hello, __ Nigel! I have just come back from the tour around __ Europe.
- What countries have you visited?
- I have been to __ Greece, __ Italy, __ France and __ Netherlands.
- Did you like the tour?
- It was really fantastic! We visited __ Acropolis and __ Coliseum. We skied in __ Alps and swam in __ Atlantic Ocean. We walked along the streets in __ Amsterdam and enjoyed the view of __ Paris from __ Eiffel Tower. I have made a lot of photos. Come to my place and I’ll tell you more about this tour.
- With great pleasure!
Task 5. Fill in the article ‘a’ or ‘the’. Explain your choice.
- I saw ____ Moon last night.
- I saw ____ owl last night.
- ____ British Isles are washed by ____ English Channel in ____ south-east.
- ____ Nile is ____ river.
- ____ parrot is ____ bird.
- Which ocean is bigger – ____ Pacific or ____ Atlantic?
- ____ film we saw yesterday was ____ comedy.
- ____ Robinsons live in ____ small flat.
Task 6. Fill in the article ‘the’ where necessary.
- ____ Sphinx is in ____ Egypt.
- ____ Chicago River flows south towards ____ Gulf of Mexico.
- ____ Regent Street is a street in the West End of ____ London. It runs between ____ Oxford Circus and ____ Piccadilly Circus.
- ____ National Gallery faces ____ Trafalgar Square.
- ____ Channel Islands are popular with British people for a holiday at ____ seaside.
- ____ Volga flows from ____ Valdai Hills to ____ Caspian Sea.
- Where are ____ British Isles?
- ____ Margaret lives in ____ Vienna. It is in ____ Austria.
- You can find beautiful collections of paintings in ____ Tate Gallery.
- We get tea mostly from ____ China and Ceylon.
- ____ Danube rises in ____ Germany and flows through ____ Vienna in ____ Austria, ____ Budapest in ____ Hungary, and through ____ Romania and ____ Moldova, and finally into ____ Black Sea.
- They brought the potato to ____ Europe from ____ America.
- ____ Mary speaks ____ English very well.
- ____British are conservative nation.
- Have you written a letter to ____ Johnsons?
Task 7. Use the article ‘the’ where necessary.
- ____Statue of Liberty was a gift from ____ France to ____ United States.
- ____ Donald and ____ Sarah went to school yesterday.
- On our trip to ____ USA we crossed ____ Atlantic Ocean.
- ____ Nick is ____ youngest son of ____ Browns.
- He lived in ____ South-East, then he moved to ____ North.
- Some seas have names of colours: ____ Black Sea, ____ Red Sea, ____ Yellow Sea.
- ____ Fleet Street in ____ London took its name from ____ Fleet River, which till 1765 ran into ____ Thames.
- His ship nearly sank in ____ Pacific.
- The article tells about the events in ____ Asia and in____ Africa.
- My uncle has been to ____ Latin America.
- ____ Strait of the Bosporus is between ____ Black Sea and ____ Mediterranean Sea.
- ____Mont Blanc is ____ highest peak of ____ Alps.
- ____ Aladdin was a lazy boy.
- In one of the cities of ____ China there lived ____ Mustapha.
- This man is ____ English.
- ____ Crimea is in _____ of _____ Ukraine.
- What is the capital of ____ Canada?
- ____ Pamirs, which are called ____ “Roof of ____ world”, are in ____ Asia.
- ____ Caucasus Mountains are between ____ Black Sea and ____Caspian Sea.