What for do we use linking or connective words?

Linking or connective words and phrases are used to show relationships between ideas. They can be used to join two or more sentences or clauses.

Linking words help to connect ideas and sentences when you speak or write English. We can use linking words to give examples, add information, summarise, sequence information, give a reason or result, or to contrast ideas.

Using linking or connective words and phrases

  • can improve the quality of your speech
  • your ideas flow more smoothly
  • the logical relationships between the ideas are expressed clearer
  • act like bridges between parts of your writing and speaking
  • you decorate your written work or speech by making them sound or read better.


Here’s a list of the most common linking words and phrases:

To state personal opinion

In my opinion

In my opinion, Sunday is the best day of the week.

In my view

In my view, golf is just a game and not a sport.


Personally, I am against zoos.

I believe that

I believe that new sports facilities are necessary for our school.

It seems to me that

It seems to me that this magazine will be very popular among teenagers.

I think that

I think that the problem of polluted environment is one of the most urgent.

As for me

As for me, I am greatly interested in art.

As far as I am concerned

As far as I am concerned, art plays an essential part in my life.

There are a number of reasons why I believe

There are a number of reasons why I believe that television is one of the main sources of information.

To my mind

To my mind, there are many good sportsmen in our school.

To my way of thinking

To my way of thinking, tests are not a good way of measuring someone’s knowledge.

Personally I believe that …

Personally I believe that learning about survival skills sounds incredibly interesting.

It strikes me that

It strikes me that so few of them were willing to help.

I feel very strongly that

I feel very strongly that we have to do community work, such as helping the elderly.

I’m inclined to believe that

I’m inclined to believe that students have to wear a school uniform.

Based on what I know

Based on what I know, school helps to become a better person.

I am convinced

I am convinced you should avoid fizzy drinks.

Speaking for myself

Speaking for myself, I watch TV no more than two hours a day.

I am confident that

I am confident that children should use computers sensibly.

To list points

First(ly), first of all, to start with, to begin with

Firstly it is wrong and secondly it is extremely difficult to implement. First of all, let me ask you something. She wasn’t very keen on the idea to start with. To begin with, his is a genuine talent.

For a start

You’re bored and don’t knowwhat to do? Well, you could go play outside, for a start! I’m sick of living in this city —for a start, the traffic makes  commuting to work an absolute nightmare!

In the first place

Why didn’t you tell me in the first place that you’ve decided to leave?

initially (at first)

Iitially, he thought the new concept was nonsense. Initially, Steve cleared tables and washed up

first and foremost

He is first and foremost a teacher. First and foremost, I want to thank all of you for being here tonight.


I want two things from my boss – firstly, a pay rise, and secondly, a longer contract.


There are three factors to take into account: firstly cost, secondly time, and thirdly staff.i

in the second place

I don’t want to go yet – in the first place I’m not ready, and in the second place it’s raining.

subsequently (after a particular thing has happened; afterward)

The officer decided to stop and subsequently made an arrest.

simultaneously  (at the same time)

The telethon was broadcast simultaneously on 31 US networks.

and then

Data were systematically analysed separately and then compared with one another.


Next, entire cities banned smoking in all indoor public places.

formerly (previouslyearlierbefore)

Formerly, a hectare of this precious vineyard was worth 30,000 francs.


Previously, there had been 25 houses sold at or above the independent appraised value.


Finally, I’d like to thank everyone for coming this evening.

on the whole (all in all, altogether)

On the whole, it was quite a good speech.

ultimately (finally; in the end)

Ultimately, it’s a question of who is more popular.


Lastly, I’d like to ask you about your plans. Lastly, add the lemon juice.

last of all

Last of all, I again want to say a lot of thanks to you for this rare occasion and for the possibility of explaining the position of Ukraine in relation to very important issues discussed here today.

last but not the least

I would like to thank my publisher, my editor and, last but not the least, my husband.

To add more points on the same topic

what is more

He was now a king, and what was more, a well-beloved king.
You should remember it, and what’s more, you should get it right.


Computers are cheaper nowadays; furthermorethey are lighter.


The report is badly written. Moreover, it’s inaccurate.

in adding (to this)

in addition

You haven’t paid the rent yet.  In addition, you owe me money. Chris is on the basketball team this semester at Indiana School for the Deaf. In addition, he is on the soccer team.

in addition to this

John’s grades are terrible because he has been so lazy these days. In addition to this, his relationship to his parents got worse.

another reason

We will be here for one more week so we can finish up our work. Another reason we are staying longer is because we do not want to miss the conference.


The trip is too expensive. Besides, I don’t really like hot weather.


John likes camping in the mountains. Also, John is an experienced hiker.

too (in addition; also)

not only … but

If the project fails this will have terrible consequences not only on our department, but also on the whole organization.

above all (most importantly)

Above all, don’t forget to call when you get there.

along with ( in addition to)

This is a plane carrying heavy radar equipment along with full fuel tanks. I went to the concert along with my friend.

additionally (also)

“Additionally, 45,000 people have already exhausted their unemployment benefits this year,” he said.

as well as

Rural women include farmers, as well as domestic servants.

equally important

This agenda item is equally important. Promoting inter-cultural dialogue was equally important.

To show sequence

Beginning: First, First of all, To start with

Continuing: Secondly, After that, Then, Next

Concluding: Finally, Lastly, Last but not least

To show cause and effect


We can’t go to Sue’s party because we’ll be busy working on our project.

because of

The plane was delayed because of the foggy weather. I was late to work because of the heavy traffic.

consequently  (as a result)

He had spent most of his time hanging around instead of revising his lessons. Consequently, he had a lot of trouble answering the exam questions. The company is expanding. Consequentlythere are jobs on offer. They have recruited more people and consequently the service is better. Flexible workers find themselves in great demand, and consequently earn high salaries

due to the fact that

This is partly due to the fact that many of them lack a basic education certificate. This is partly due to the fact that certain expectations cannot any longer be met.

as a consequence

This is constantly growing population of the Earth and as a consequence growing level of consumption. Many Arab countries were involved in actual military confrontation with Israel and, as a consequence, some of their territory was occupied.
as a result

Prices were reduced by 20%. As a result, sales increased. The weather is supposed to be drizzly and chilly today; as a result, the Festival will be cancelled.


A hurricane has been announced. Therefore, air traffic will be disrupted. I was too tired; therefore I decided not to go to the state fair last night.

for that reason

The school bus broke down last week and has not been repaired yet. So for that reason, our dance group is unable to go to Washington, D.C. to perform at Kennedy Center.

owing to (because of)

The concert has been cancelled owing to lack of interest.

since (for the reason that, because)

Delegates were delighted, since better protection of rhino reserves will help protect other rare species.

as  (whilejust as, at the time that)

Frank watched him as he ambled through the crowd.


She remained silent, for she was so depressed to talk.


It is raining today thus we are not going to the beach.

that’s why

Ricky worked all day, from 8am until 11pm. That is why he stayed home instead of going camping with us.

To show similarity

likewise (in the same way; also)

The dream of young people is to grow old, and it is likewise the dream of their parents to relive youth. Just water the plants twice a week, and likewise the ones in the bedroom. Informal: “I don’t have time to spend hours preparing one dish!” “Likewise!” (= it’s the same for me)

similarly (in a similar way)
The children were similarly dressed. Cars must stop at red traffic lights: similarly, bicycles have to stop too.

in the same way

My mother did everything she could to educate us. In the same way, we put a high value on our children’s education.

To show contrast


Sharon has not visited the Land of the Dragons, yet if she had had a kid, she would have gone by now.


The hotel was open. However, nobody came to the reception desk.

nevertheless (despite what has just been said or referred to)

Brain drain has terrible consequences on the developing countries. Nevertheless, nothing has been done to solve the problem or at least reduce its negative effects. He had severe injuries; nevertheless, he completely recovered.

nonetheless  (in spite of that; nevertheless)

The weather was bitterly cold.  He went hiking nonetheless. The play was great, nonetheless, I was sick of seeing it after the fourth time.


She’s very hard-working but not very imaginative. This is not caused by evil, but by simple ignorance. The play’s good, but not that good – I’ve seen better. I’m sorry, but I think you’re wrong when you say she did it deliberately.
Call me old-fashioned but I like handwritten letters. You can invite Keith to the party, but please don’t ask that friend of his party,  but please don’t ask that friend  of his. She’s not a painter but a writer. She’s not only a painter but also a writer. We mustn’t complain about the problem, but help put it right. I think it’s true, but then, I’m not an expert.

Though I eat green beans because they are healthy, I hate them.


Although she’s very nice, her classmates hate her. Although Steven was extremely tired, he washed the dishes.

even though (although)

Even though he left school at 16, he still managed to become prime minister.

even if 

He is poor and has no house, but even if he had money, he wouldn’t buy a house.

in spite of the fact / despite the fact 

In spite of the fact that he is rich, he lives in a small house.

in spite of / despite

In spite of/despite being blind, he walked to the station. Despite Fred’s old age, he goes jogging every morning. In spite of the cold weather, they enjoyed themselves.

whereas (in contrast or comparison with the fact that)

They have got two children, a boy and girl. The boy takes after his father whereas the girl takes after the mother. Tom is rich, whereas Jack is poor.

on the other hand

Laptops are convenient; on the other hand, they can be expensive.

on the contrary / conversely

Northern European countries had a great summer. On the contrary/converselysouthern Europe had poor weather.

To give examples

for instance / for example

There are several problems to consider; for instance/for examplethere is a lack of public transport. Not all birds eat berries. For example, vultures eat dead animals.

such as

I have a few things to take care of such as paying bills, cleaning the house, and going to the post office.

like (such as; for example)

They study lots of subjects at school, like history, languages, maths, science, etc.

particularly (especially)

We’re particularly interested to hear from people who speak two or more European languages. I didn’t particularly want to go, but I had to.

in particular (especially)

What in particular did you like about the last apartment that we saw? Are you looking for anything in particular?


He didn’t especially like dancing. I like sports games, especially basketball.

to illustrate

Jeff is an interesting person to know. To illustrate, he knows a lot about the history of Ireland.

Expressing purpose

in order to

She wakes up early in order to be on time to work.

in order not to

I left home early in order not to be late for the appointment.

so as 

They visited him so as to offer their condolences for the death of his wife

so as not 

He helped the new policewoman so as not to fail in her first mission.

so that

She arrived early so that she could help her colleagues.

To assert obvious truth

no doubt

There is no doubt that the dog buried the bone in the garden.


Jeff told us an undoubtedly true story that was very scary.

without a doubt

The judge, without a doubt, thinks capital punishment is wrong.

of course

Of course, Sarah is going to the beach this weekend with her parents. She needs a break from Gallaudet.


Naturally Steven is not going to agree with that plan.

in fact

In fact, he thinks that the idea of setting up a business selling scarves would surely fail. Lisa decided not to go to King Islands. In fact she told me, “No, way.”


Certainly, you may borrow my book on the history of the community. But, be sure to return it to me next week.

conceding that

Conceding that Sally is a strong skater, Rachel still believes she will be able to beat her in the Olympics. Rachel wants to become the first deaf ice skater to receive a gold medal.

in other words

I feel that our last Student Council meeting did not go well. In other words, it was a fine mess.

needless to say (obviously)

Needless to say, because of the accident he won’t be at work for a while.

To introduce a conclusion


Finally, I’d like to thank everyone for coming this evening.

Lastly (used to show when something comes after all the other things in a list)

In accepting this award, I would like to thank the producer, the director, the scriptwriter, and, lastly, the film crew.

All in all

Sure, it rained on our vacation, but all in all we had a great time. All in all, the team has a bright future, even though 

they didn’t make the playoffs this year. All in all, it was a very good party. All in all, I’m glad that I visited New York


Taking everything into account

But taking everything into account, we can state that the general situation in the region is improving.

On the whole

On the whole, it is clear that tobacco production represents a small part of most economies.

In conclusion

In conclusion, she stressed the need for realistic and achievable targets.

To conclude

To conclude, I want to wish you all a very happy holiday season.

To crown it all

I had lost my ticket, was soaked to the skin and, to crown it all, discovered that my purse had been stolen.

To sum up

To sum up, our team is now one of the best in the world.

In brief

In brief, some improvements in the middle school program need to be made.

In a nutshell

Well, to put it in a nutshell, we’re lost.