The past participle (V3) of regular verbs is formed from the infinitive + -ed
The past participle of irregular verbs should be learnt from the list of irregular verbs.
I have written I‘ve written
You have written You‘ve written
He has written He‘s written
She has written She‘s written
It has written It‘s written
We have written We‘ve written
You have written You‘ve written
They have written They’ve written
have not = haven’t has not = hasn’t
I, you, we, they have not written (haven’t written)
He, she, it has not written (hasn’t written)
Yes/ No Questions: Have (Has) + Subject + V3?
Have I (you, we, they) written? – Yes, I (you, we, they) have. / No, I (you, we, they) haven’t.
Has he (she, it) written? – Yes, he (she, it) has. / No, he (she, it) hasn’t.
The Present Perfect Tense has a number of uses.
1. We use it to talk about experience or changes which have happened.
- I’ve worked in six different countries. I’ve seen Big Ben.
- Have you ever been to Australia? Have you ever ridden a camel?
- She’s won many awards for her books. She’s got lots of birthday postcards.
- She’s lost weight. We have already grown up.
When these things happened is not important – the focus is on the action/state, not when it happened.
NB If we say when we had the experience, we must use the Past Simple.
I’ve visited Great Britain several times.
BUT I visited Great Britain for the first time in 1992.
We can never use the Present Perfect with a time in the past.
I have been to Spain in 2002.
- I was in Spain in 2002.
2. We also use the Present Perfect to talk about things that are unfinished – unfinished states and unfinished time periods, the actions which started in the past and continue up to the present.
- I’ve known him since I was 11. (unfinished state) I met him when I was 11. I still know him now.
- I’ve lived here for ten years.
The Present Perfect is acting as a bridge between the past and the present.
- I’ve had this watch for almost thirty years.
- We’ve lived here since I was a boy.
- She’s been to the cinema three times this week. (unfinished time period)
This week isn’t finished yet – she may go to the cinema again.
- We’ve already had two holidays this year.
- I’ve eaten too much today.
3. We use the Present Perfect to show the present result of a past action.
I’ve lost my keys. I’ve missed my train. He’s bought a car.
- He lost his keys some time in the past but the result – he can’t get into his house – is in the present.
- John’s broken his leg and he can’t go on holiday.
- A storm has blown down the telephone lines. We’re stuck here!
Time Expressions used with the Present Perfect Tense
For the Present Perfect the following words are used quite often:
just (щойно), yet (ще – у заперечному реченні, вже – у питальному), never (ніколи), already (вже), ever (коли-небудь), so far (досі), up to now (до сьогодні), recently (недавно), lately (нещодавно), since (з, з того часу як), for (протягом), etc.
Ever is used
- in questions: Have you ever been to the USA? Have you ever eaten sushi?
- in negative questions: Haven’t they ever been to Europe? Haven’t they ever eaten Chinese food?
- in negative statements using the pattern nothing + ever, nobody + ever: Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like this has ever happened to us.
- with the ‘first time’: It’s the first time that I’ve ever eaten snails. This is the first time I’ve ever been to England.
- means at no time before now, and is the same as not ….. ever: I have never visited Madrid.
- You must not use never and not together: I haven’t never been to Italy. I have never been to Italy.
- refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition: I’ve already drunk three coffees this morning. (= and you’re offering me another one!) Don’t write to John, I’ve already done it.
- is also used in questions: Have you already written to John? Has she finished her homework already?
- can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence: I have already been to Tokyo. I have been to Tokyo already.
- is used in negative statements: I haven’t visited the Tate Gallery yet. They haven’t eaten yet.
- is used questions: Have you met Judy yet? Has he arrived yet?
- is usually placed at the end of the sentence.
Today; this morning/ week/ month/ year
- I have drunk three cups of coffee today. She has called me several times this evening. Maybe she’ll call again. My sister has visited us only once this year, but she promised to come at Christmas. They have been abroad this year.
- at this particular time, up to now, up to present: So far, only two Democrats have entered the race for govenor. It’s been quiet so far. Which one have you enjoyed most so far?
- We use for with a period of time in the past, present or future: They’ve lived in Oxford for a couple of months.
- refers to a previous point in time: They’ve lived in Oxford since 2004.