# Science and Scientists

Let’s learn about science and scientists. Science helps us organize what we know and learn new things through experiments. There are a lot of different branches of science.

Scientists are curious, they want to know the answers to questions What? When? Where? Who? Why? Scientists use a special method called the scientific method to discover and understand the world.

The branches of science are divided into three groups:

• formal sciences (mathematics, logic, statistics, computer science)
• natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, Earth science, astronomy)
• social sciences (economics, political science, sociology, psychology, antropology, history, eductation)

## Archimedes (around 287-212 BC)

Archimedes was a brilliant scientist and mathematician who lived in ancient Greece around 287-212 BC. He made many important contributions to the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering.

Archimedes is renowned for his discoveries in geometry. He made the first calculation of pi (π), representing the circle’s circumference-to-diameter ratio. His approximation of pi remains a crucial concept in modern mathematics and science.

Archimedes is famous for discovering buoyancy, known as “Archimedes’ Principle”. It says that an object in a fluid, like water, is pushed upward with a force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. He made this breakthrough while in a bath and exclaimed “Eureka!” when he solved a problem he was thinking about.

## Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 -1543)

Nicolaus Copernicus was an astronomer and mathematician. He developed the theory that the Earth moves around the Sun.

Nicolaus Copernicus was a remarkable scientist who lived in the 15th and 16th centuries. He is best known for proposing a revolutionary idea about the structure of the solar system. Nicolaus Copernicus was a brave and forward-thinking scientist who changed the way people viewed the universe. He suggested that the Sun was at the center, and the Earth, along with other planets, orbited around it. This idea is known as heliocentrism.

## Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

Born in Pisa, Italy in 1564, Galileo is called as the father of modern science because of his discoveries in astronomy and physics.

He was sent to study medicine by his father, but he chose his career in science and mathematics and made the first telescope to observe stars and planets.

He also discovered the law of pendulum as he watched a chandelier swing in the cathedral of Pisa. He also discovered that the surface of moon was not smooth but contained burrows and holes to what he called crater.

Galileo discovered 4 revolving moons around Jupiter which are named after him. He proved what Copernicus said about the Sun being the center of the solar system. Galileo became blind in his old days and died in the year 1642.

## Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727)

Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician. He did research into gravity, light and many areas of physics, maths and astronomy.

Sir Isaac Newton was a brilliant scientist and mathematician who lived in the 17th century. Isaac Newton was born in England in 1643 and is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time.

Newton is best known for his three laws of motion. Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation, showing that all objects attract each other based on their masses and distance. This explains why things fall and why planets orbit the Sun, helping us understand how everything in the universe is connected through gravity.

Newton made significant contributions to mathematics as well. He independently developed a branch of mathematics called calculus, which is a set of tools and techniques used to understand how things change. Calculus is now an essential part of mathematics and is used in various scientific fields.

## Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)

Charles Darwin was a biologist. He observed nature. He took notes and measurements and collected specimens from around the world. He is best known for his work on evolution and natural selection.

Charles Darwin was born in England in 1809. Darwin’s most famous journey was aboard the ship that sailed around the world. During this voyage Darwin visited various places. He observed a wide variety of plants and animals, and these observations would later shape his revolutionary ideas about how species change over time. In 1859, he published a book titled “On the Origin of Species,” where he introduced the concept of natural selection. Natural selection is the idea that living things that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and pass on their traits to the next generation. Over time, this process can lead to the evolution of new species.

## Marie Curie (1867 – 1934)

Marie Skłodowska-Curie was a physicist and chemist. She did experiments with radioactive materials and discovered polonium and radium. Marie Curie won two Nobel prizes.

Marie Curie was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1867. She loved science from a young age and faced challenges in her childhood, losing her mother at 10. Unable to attend university in Warsaw due to gender restrictions, she and her sister Bronya made a deal to support each other’s education.

Marie worked for five years to support Bronya’s education, then moved to Paris at 24 to attend the Sorbonne. There, she met and married Pierre Curie. Together, they investigated radioactivity and discovered polonium and radium, earning a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.

After Pierre’s death in 1906, Marie continued their work, becoming the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. She received a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911. Marie’s contributions to x-ray technology during World War I and her role as the head of the International Red Cross’s radiological service showcased her dedication.

In her 50s, Marie developed leukemia from radiation exposure and passed away in 1934. Her determination and groundbreaking work in physics and chemistry continue to impact the world. Marie’s story encourages others to pursue their passions with hard work and determination, no matter the challenges they face.

## Louis Pasteur (1822 -1895)

Louis Pasteur was a French chemist who found that bacteria cause harmful diseases. He also discovered that bactera can be killed by boiling, a process we call Pasteurisation.

Louis Pasteur discovered important things that helped keep people healthy. One of his cool findings was about vaccines. He also figured out how to make milk and other liquids safe to drink by a process called pasteurization, named after him. Louis Pasteur’s clever ideas about microbes made a big impact on how we understand and fight illnesses.

## Alan Turing (1912 – 1954)

Alan Turing was a brilliant British mathematician, logician, and computer scientist who lived in the early to mid-20th century. He is often considered the father of computer science and artificial intelligence. He invented the idea of a ‘Universal Machine’ or a computer in 1936. Turing played a crucial role during World War II by breaking German codes, helping the Allies.

His most famous contribution is the Turing machine, a theoretical model that laid the foundation for modern computers.

He introduced what is now known as the Turing Test. Turing proposed that a computer could be considered intelligent if it could successfully mimic a human in a conversation to the extent that an observer could not reliably distinguish between the machine and a human. The Turing Test has since become a foundational concept in discussions about artificial intelligence and machine intelligence.

## Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

Einstein is considered as one of the greatest revolutionary scientists the world has ever known. The “Man of Century” has some spectacular works in physics.  He is considered to be the father of modern physics for his contribution in developing the general theory of relativity.

Who was Albert Einstein?
Albert Einstein was a famous physicist who revolutionized our understanding of the fundamental laws of the universe.

Where was Albert Einstein born?
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on March 14, 1879.

What is Albert Einstein best known for?
Einstein is best known for developing the theory of relativity, which includes the famous equation E=mc² (energy equals mass times the speed of light squared).

Did Albert Einstein win the Nobel Prize?
Yes, Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, which laid the foundation for the development of quantum theory.

Did Albert Einstein have a significant impact during World War II?
Einstein did not directly contribute to the war effort, but he played a role in urging the United States to develop the atomic bomb to counter the potential threat posed by Nazi Germany.

Where did Albert Einstein spend the later years of his life?
Einstein spent the later years of his life in the United States, after emigrating from Nazi Germany in 1933. He became a U.S. citizen in 1940.

Was Albert Einstein involved in social and political issues?
Yes, Einstein was an outspoken advocate for civil rights and pacifism. He used his fame to speak out on various social and political issues.

Did Albert Einstein have a sense of humor?
Yes, Einstein was known for his wit and sense of humor. He often used clever and humorous remarks in his public speeches and private conversations.

How did Albert Einstein contribute to science after the theory of relativity?
After the theory of relativity, Einstein continued to work on various problems in theoretical physics, but he did not achieve another breakthrough comparable to relativity.

When did Albert Einstein pass away?
Albert Einstein passed away on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey, USA, at the age of 76.

## Do Science and Scientists Quiz

1. Which organ in the human body is responsible for pumping blood?
2. What is the pigment that gives plants their green color and helps them with photosynthesis?
3. What is the process called when a plant uses sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen?
4. What is the largest mammal on Earth?
5. Who is the scientist known for formulating the theory of evolution by natural selection?
6. What is the formula for water?
7. Who discovered the law of pendulum?
8. Which planet is known as the “Red Planet”?
9. What is the name of the galaxy that contains our solar system?
10. What is the name of the phenomenon where the Moon partially or completely covers the Sun?
11. Who a process called pasteurization was named after?
12. What is the force that pulls objects towards the center of the Earth?
13. Which famous scientist formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation?
14. What is the study of fossils and ancient life forms called?
15. What is the study of Earth’s rocks and minerals called?
16. What prestigious international award is given annually for achievements in various fields, including physics, chemistry, and medicine?
17. Who is credited with inventing the telephone?
18. What is the boiling point of water?
19. What famous comet visits our solar system approximately every 76 years?
20. Who was the first woman to win two Nobel Prizes in different scientific fields?
21. Can you name the order of the planets in our solar system, starting from the one closest to the Sun?
22. Which renowned scientist is famous for developing the theory of relativity?
23. Who is considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence?
24. What exclamation was originally attributed to Archimedes?
25. What are the three main branches of science?

## How do you think science will change the world in the next fifty years?

In the next fifty years, science is likely to continue playing a crucial role in shaping the world in various ways.

There will be changes in medicine and healthcare. Effective treatments for diseases will appear. We might see the development of personalized medicine.

Advancements in technology will change our daily lives. There will be improvements in artificial intelligence, robotics, and the development of new, more efficient energy sources.

Scientists are working on solutions to reduce the impact of climate change. In the next fifty years, we may witness the implementation of their efforts.

Space exploration is likely to progress further. Satellite technologies will develop. Scientists will have deeper understanding of the universe.

Scientific research will continue to contribute to efforts to protect and preserve the environment. This may involve developing sustainable practices, reducing pollution, and conserving biodiversity.

Сommunication methods will improve. Information will be more accessible to people around the world.

There will be innovations in teaching methods. Interactive learning tools will be used and technology will be integrated into educational systems.

Scientific advancements will create new industries and job opportunities.

Science will change the world in many positive ways.